Tuesday, 31 May 2011

Mohenjo-daro Pakistan


Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ] ), situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. The archaeological ruins of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is sometimes referred to as "an ancient Indus valley metropolis"

Rediscovery and excavation

Mohenjo-daro was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1500 BCE. It was rediscovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay,[2] an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, massive excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others.[3] John Marshall's car, which was used by the site directors, is still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, showing their struggle and dedication to Mohenjo-daro. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.
The last major excavations were conducted in 1964-65 by Dr. George F. Dales. After this date, excavations were banned due to damage done to the exposed structures by weathering. Since 1965, the only projects allowed at the site have been salvage excavation, surface surveys and conservation projects. Despite the ban on major archaeological projects, in the 1980s, teams of German and Italian survey groups, led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi, combined techniques such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, surface scraping and probing, to determine further clues about the ancient civilization.


Mohenjo-daro is located in Sindh, Pakistan on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley. The ridge is now buried by the flooding of the plains, but was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ridge allowed the city to stand above the surrounding plain. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River valley on the west and the Ghaggar-Hakra river on the east. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed is now dry.[4]
Anthropogenic construction over the years was precipitated by the need for more room. The ridge was expanded via giant mud brick platforms. Ultimately, the settlement grew to such proportions that some buildings reached 12 meters above the level of the modern plain, and therefore much higher than this above the ancient plain.

Historical significance

Mohenjo-daro in ancient times was most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [5] It was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, during its peak. The planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley.[6]
The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 BCE, flowered 2600–1900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient riverine civilization that flourished in the Indus river valley (now Pakistan and northwest India). Another name for this civilization is the "Harappan Civilization" (Harappa is another important IVC site to the north of Mohenjo-daro in Punjab).
The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BCE. Indus Civilization settlements spread as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria, as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of western India in Gujarat. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal.

See also

Monday, 30 May 2011

Rawalakot Azad Kashmir pakistan


Rawalakot (Urdu: راولا کوٹ), is a city in Azad Kashmir, and is the capital of Poonch Division and Poonch District. It is in a saucer-shaped valley at an elevation of 1615 metres (5300 ft).
Rawalakot is situated 76 kilometres (47 miles) from Kohala, Pakistan and about 120 kilometres (84 miles) from the city of Rawalpindi. It is linked with Rawalpindi and Islamabad via Goyain Nala and Tayeen roads. It is also linked with Rawalpindi via Sudhnuti. Rawalakot is a hill station.


Surrounding villages include: Singola Awanabad, Thorar, Mong, Androte, Rehara, Hurna Maira, Pothi, Khayi Gala, Kharick, Rairbun, {Topa Soon (Soon Topa 8 k/m from rawalakot.)}, Kaimon, Titrot, Motialmara, Trar Dewan, Chaire, Chapanidahar, Chuck, Tranni, Dahmni, Parat, Pothi Bala/Makwalan, Kharek, Pakgali, Paniola, Banakha, Khayt Chrian, Mohri Farman Shah, Dreak, Banjosa, Hussainkot, Hurnamaira, Thorar, Rehara, Bangoin, Jandala, Timrota, Thala Tain and Pachiot. Bagh District lies to the north and Sudhnuti District lies to the south. The road passing through (Jalooth) Paniola connects Rawalakot to Bagh and Muzaffarabad. The Other road that passes through Mohri Farman Shah, Shuja Abad is the shortest path that connects Rawalakot city with Bagh. Toward the west are Murree, Islamabad and Rawalpindi regions of Pakistan. Rawalakot is linked with Kotli.


Average temperature during the summer varies from 60 °F (16 °C) to 75 °F (24 °C). During the winter snowfall starts during the month of December and lasts through January. The rainy season lasts from April through June.[1]


  • Construction of the Guoien Nalla road between Rawalakot and Azad Pattan has considerably reduced travel times.
  • Rawalakot Airport is non-operational, as there is no demand for the air service provided by Pakistan International Airlines. The airport has been closed since 1998.


Rawalakot has no theatres; however, the university does have some cultural events.


odges, government-owned and private guest houses, and hotels are available in different parts of Rawalakot. Attractions include: mountain-based adventure tourism, rock climbing, mountaineering, trekking, summer camping and hiking, water-based adventure tourism, and paragliding.


Sunday, 29 May 2011

Astore Valley Pakistan

Astore Valley

Astore Valley (el. 2,600 m (8,500 ft)) is now located in Astore District in the autonomous Pakistani regions of Gilgit-Baltistan,previously in the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. The valley, adjoining the eastern side of mountain Nanga Parbat, is about 120 km (75 mi) long, having area of 5,092 km2 (1,966 sq mi).[citation needed]
The entrance of the valley is located about 60 km southeast of Gilgit with four side-valleys. The valley has more than 100 villages with a total population of 71,666 (Census 1998)[citation needed], including Loas, Louze, Chilm, Bubin, Gorikot, Parisheng Eid Ghah, Fina, Bulen, Chongra, Tari Shing, Rattu, Kamri,and Minimerg. Chilm is the most beautiful village of Astore, being a starting point of Deosai, the world's second highest plateau. Rama lake and pastures are the most famous tourist attraction in the region. The majority of people practice subsistence agriculture and livestock is the main source of livelihood complemented by seasonal work in down districts of the country. Due to its diverse landscape and climatic conditions the valley provides excellent habitat for a variety of commercially important medicinal plants.


 Astore valley has a moderate climate during summer. In winter it can snow up to 6 in (150 mm) in the main valleys and up to 2 to 3 ft (0.61 to 0.91 m) in the mountains. In Mirmalik valley it snows up to 6 ft (1.8 m) in February.


Ghāzī Mukhpun, a Persian adventurer, is said to have married a princess of the Skārdu reigning family. The four sons born of this union became Rās of Skārdu, Astor, Rondu, and Kharmang respectively, and from them are descended the families of the present chiefs of those places. The independence of Astor ceased at the Dogra conquest.


 The main language spoken in the valley is Shina. Urdu, which is the national language of Pakistan, is the second most frequently spoken language. Shina has many sub-dialects especially significant in Bunji, Dashkin, Doyan, Praishing, Gorikot, across the Burzil and Rattu regions. Shina is mild phonetically and uses the Arabic script. Poetry is not recorded, rather it is transmitted via folk songs and part of stories narrated by folk singers and artisans. Astore, a corridor to Dardistan, has a rich linguistic background due to its centuries old connections with the rest of the Indian subcontinent. People living in this region were frequent visitors to India for trade and education and had access to the maharajas' royal courts. British officers visiting and surveying led to an admixture of foreign words in the local language.


Saturday, 28 May 2011

Deosai National Park Pakistan

Deosai National Park

The Deosai National Park (Urdu: دیوسائی نیشنل پارک) is located in the Skardu, Astore DistrictsGilgit-Baltistan province, in northernmost Pakistan. The park is located on the Deosai Plains of the Greater Kashmir geographic region. Deosai means the "Land of Giants"


Deosai National Park is at an average elevation of 4,114 metres (13,497 ft) above the sea level, making the Deosai Plains the second highest plateau in the world, after the adjacent Tibetan Plateau. The park protects an area of 3,000 square kilometres (1,200 sq mi). It is well known for its rich flora and fauna of the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe ecoregion. In the Spring season it is covered by sweeps wildflowers and a wide variety of butterflies.
Deosai - Sheosar Lake
Deosai Lake, or Sheosar Lake from the Shina language meaning "Blind lake" (Sheo - Blind, Sar - lake) is in the park. The lake, at an elevation of 4,142 metres (13,589 ft), is one of the highest lakes in the world. Its length is 2.3 metres (7.5 ft), width 1.8 metres (5.9 ft) and average depth 40 metres (130 ft). It is located near the Chilim Valley on the Deosai Plains.


The Deosai National Park was established in 1993 to protect the survival of the Himalayan Brown Bear, Pakistan's largest omnivore, and its habitat. Having long been a prize kill for poachers and hunters, the bear now has a hope for survival in Deosai where its number has increased from only 19 in 1993 to 40 in 2005.
The Deosai Plains are also home to the Himalayan Ibex, Red Fox, Golden Marmot, Gray Wolf, the Ladakh Urial, the Snow Leopard, and over 124 resident and migratory birds. Birds in the park include the Golden Eagle, Lammergeier, Griffon Vulture, Laggar Falcon, Peregrine Falcon, Kestrel, Sparrowhawk and Snowcock.


 The Deosai Plains and Deosai National Park can be accessed via two routes. One is through Skardu City and the second through Astore District .The road from Astore starts from Chilum, continues through the plains and is asphalt road till the main lake before climbing to Deosai. The route from Skardu is via an unpaved road which can be hiked in two days. By jeep it is only a matter of hours. Deosai Lake is located in Gilgit-Baltistan. The beauty of Himalayas is visible everywhere around Deosai. It is also the home to the endangered Himalayan brown bear. Fewer than 19 bears lived there in 90's and now the population is on the increase. Now nearly 55 brown bear lives in Deosai. The view here is taken at Sheosar Lake in Deosai.